This movement creates an energy gradient across the membrane by virtue of the accumulated positive charge on one side.This energy gradient is called the proton-motive force.This operation resembles the way windmills harness differences in pressure and water wheels use changes in potential energy resulting from gravity.The movement of a proton back across the membrane is used to power a change in the shape of the enzyme.Part of the protein is embedded in the membrane across which the protons have been driven.ATP synthase provides a route through which the protons can re-enter the cell, but takes advantage of the energy generated when they do so.
Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that phosphorylates ADP to synthesize ATP by transferring electrons along the electron transport chain at the final stage of the aerobic respiration.
Oxidative phosphorylation needs molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor. 2017 3.”Substrate-level phosphorylation.” Wikipedia.
Hence, oxidative phosphorylation is feasible only under the aerobic conditions, and it occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD The energy of the electrons in NADH is used to power a process called chemiosmosis.
Chemiosmosis concentrates the energy of the electrons into potential energy by moving hydrogen ions—protons—across a membrane.